Middle Yellowstone and Musselshell Saltcedar Demonstration Project

Agricultural Research, 2001, Beetles sock it to Saltcedar: Agricultural Research, v. 49, no. 9, p. 23. “Focuses on Chinese Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda elongate, as biological control agent against saltcedar.” Risks posed by saltcedar infestation.


Bailey, J.K., Schweitzer, J.A., and Whitham, T.G., 2001, Salt cedar negatively affects biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates: Wetlands, v. 21, p. 442–447.


Barranco, A., 2001, Invasive species summary project: Salt cedar project: Columbia University. General information on how to identify saltcedar, how it spreads, and control methods,


Bockness, S., 2004, Remediation efforts in Montana: personal interview conducted by Michel Olson, student intern, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Billings, Montana. 


Brosius, L., Swain, R., and Buchanan, R., 2003, Water research targets trees: Kansas Geological Society, Geologic Record, v. 9.2, Spring 2003. Study conducted to evaluate the use of groundwater by trees such as saltcedar.


Bussan, A.J., Dewey, S.A., Whitson, T.D., and Trainor, M.A., 2001, Weed management handbook: Montana-Utah-Wyoming Cooperative Extension Services.


Clark, J.S., Fastie, C., Hurtt, G., Jackson, S.T., Johnson, C., King, G.A., Lewis, M., Lynch, J., Pacala, S., Prentice, C., Schupp, E.W., Webb III, T., and Wyckoff, P., 1998, Reid's paradox of rapid plant migration: dispersal theory and interpretation of paleoecological records: BioScience, v. 48, p. 13–24.


Cleverly, J.R., Dahm, C.M., Thibault, J.R., and Gilroy, D.J., 2002, Seasonal estimates of actual evapo-transpiration from Tamarix ramosissima stands using three-dimensional eddy covariance: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 52, no. 2, p. 181. “This study addresses the pattern of evapotranspiration throughout the growing season for tamarix between flooded and unflooded sites.” 


Cooper, D.J., Anderson, D.C., and Chimner, R.A., 2003, Multiple pathways for woody plant establishment on floodplains at local to regional scales: Journey of Ecology, v. 91, no. 2, p. 182–196. Technical report that includes the study of tamarix along floodplains and how it affects water flow.


Coy, P., 1995, These bugs make manna—and mow down weed trees: Business Week, no. 3452, p. 109. “Focuses on the benefits of the manna scale insect in preventing saltcedar infestations in the western U.S. Plans to release manna scale egg sacks along Arizona’s Rio Grande; effectiveness of insects as herbicide.”


Cramer, J., Mullin, B., Tyrrel, S., and Sackman, S., 2002, The Montana salt cedar (tamarisk) management plan. “The Montana Salt cedar (Tamarisk) Management Plan has been developed to provide a coordinated, statewide approach to protecting Montana's natural resources from further encroachment by this invasive plant.”


Dahm, C.N., Cleverly, J.R., Allred Coonrod, J. E., Thibault, J. R., McDonnell, D.E., and Gilroy, D.J., 2002, Evapotranspiration at the land/water interface in a semi arid drainage basin: Freshwater Biology, v. 47, no. 4, p. 831. “Evapotranspiration is a major source of water depletion from river systems in arid and semi arid climates. A dense stand of salt cedar and a mature cottonwood stand with an extensive understory of salt cedar and Russian olive had the highest rates of annual ET.”


De Chant, L.J., and De Chant, C.J., 2004, Development of an Elementary Quantitative Competing Species Model: potential guidelines for exotic/weed plant species control and ecosystem restoration programs: Ecological Engineering, v. 22, no. 2, p. 67. “The model seeks to estimate the threshold species densities necessary for the native/crop, woody stemmed species (e.g., cottonwood, Populus deltoids and willow, Salix goodinigii, for western riparian systems) to “out-compete” the exotic/weed species (salt cedar, Tamarix ramosissima and Russian olive, Elaegnus angustifolia) and thereby reduce them.”


Duncan, C., 2001, The Montana Weed Management Plan, January 2001: Weed Summit Steering Committee and Weed Management Task Force. This book describes a comprehensive plan of action to help combat noxious weeds. It goes through how a plant becomes a noxious or invasive species and some of the monetary steps needed.


Duncan, K., and McDaniel, K.C., 1998, Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) management with Imazapyr: Weed Science, v. 12, p. 337–344.


Earth Island Journal, 1996, Manna from Hebron: Earth Island Journal, v. 11, no. 2, p. 3. Reports on Israel’s Manna scale (Trabutina mannipara) to control the saltcedar, one of western U.S.’s ten worst weeds.


Ecological Restoration, 2001, Control of Species: 2001: Ecological Restoration, v. 19, no. 4, p. 260. Presents abstracts on the control of pest species. Influence of leaf eating beetles on saltcedar. Effect of pre- and post-germination burning on the establishment of spotted knapweeds seedlings; potential control of buckthorns.


Friederici, P., 1995, The alien saltcedar: American Forests, v. 101, no. 1. “Saltcedar in the southwest United States uses more than twice the water than all the large cities of southern California combined. If you want to control saltcedar then we need to stop dam building.”


Friedman, J., 2000, Saltcedar, Russian-olive invade western riparian ecosytems: People, Land and Water, Aug.  USGS Scientists survey vegetation and other habitat characteristics at 500 long-term USGS stream gaging infestations to better understand how non-native plants invade riparian areas.


Gaskin, J.F., and Rettig, J.H., 2003, Molecular phylogenetic investigation of US invasive tamarix: Systematic Botany, v. 28, no. 1, p. 86. “Examines the morphology and taxonomy history of US invasive species tamarix. Use of chloroplast and nuclear sequence data: Test of molecular phylogenic hypothesis regarding the relationships of putative invasive taxa.”


Gaskin, J.F., and Schaal, B.A., 2002, Hybrid tamarix widespread in US invasion and undetected in Native Asian Range: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, v. 99, no. 17, p. 11256–11259.  Technical information relating to tamarix. 


Gladwin, D.N., and Roelle, J.E., 1998, Survival of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) seedlings in response to flooding: Wetlands, v. 18, p. 669–674.


Glausiuisz, J., 1996, Trees of salt: Discover, v. 17, no. 3. The Colorado River system employs beavers in certain areas to manage saltcedar growth. So far beavers are building dams out of salt cedar causing moisture to slow down in the spring runoff. Moe willows are growing and keeping the saltcedar at bay.


Grams, P.E., and Schmidt, J.C., 2002, Streamflow regulation and multilevel flood plain formation; channel narrowing on the aggrading Green River in the eastern Uinta Mountains, Colorado and Utah: Geomorphology, v. 44, no. 3, p. 334. “The style and degree of channel narrowing in aggrading reaches downstream from large dams is dependent upon the dominant geomorphic processes of the affected river. Analysis of historical photographs and tree-ring data of Tamarix sp. shows that the intermediate bench and post-dam floodplain are post-dam landforms in each reach type.”


Grubb, R.T., Sheley, R.L.,and Stivers, J., 2002, Understanding Montana's noxious weed law, #199605/Ag. Explains Montana law and landowner responsibilities. Also describes weed management districts, enforcement of law, and opportunities for cooperative and voluntary agreements. Includes list of weeds deemed noxious in Montana. 


Grubb, R.T., Sheley, R.L., and Stivers, J., 2002, Salt cedar (Tamarisk) #199710/Ag. Describes biology management techniques for this large shrub or small tree that is a threat to Montana's waterways.


Hart, J., 1999, Invasive species in the Southwest: Tamarix. “One of the most significant threats to global biodiversity is the invasion of plants to foreign areas. Replacement of native species, disruptions of nutrient and fire cycles, and changes in plant successions are some effects exotic species can have on ecology.” General information about the history, biology, ecology, management, impacts, and infestation of saltcedar. 


Horton, J.L., Hart, S.C., and Kolb, T.E., 2003, Physiological condition and water source use of sonoran desert riparian trees at the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USAL: Isotopes in Environmental Health Studies, v. 39, no. 1, p. 69. Study investigated the environmental water sources used in mid-summer by three Sonoran Desert phreatophytic riparian tree species: Salix gooddingii, Populus fremontii, and Tamarix spp.


Ikenson, B., 2003, The war against invasive species: Land and Water, v. 47, no. 4, p. 32–35. Many invasive species, including salt cedar, were planted for their root systems and fast growing vegetation. People were not aware of the problems until much later. Some of these plants are still on the market today.


Jaskson, N.E., 1996, Chemical control of saltcedar: Saltcedar Management Workshop. Herbicides available to treat saltcedar and how to apply them.


Johnson, D.E., 1999, Surveying, mapping, and monitoring noxious weeds on rangelands, in Sheley, R.L., and Petroff, J.K., eds., Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds: Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR.


Kennedy, T.A., and Hobbie, S.E., 2004, Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters matter dynamics in a desert stream: Freshwater Biology, v. 49, Issue 1, p. 65.  “We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter in a spring fed stream in the Mojave Desert by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance.”


Kustas, W.P., Prueger, J.H., and Hipps, L.E., 2002, Impact of using different time-averaged inputs for estimating sensible heat flux of riparian vegetation using radiometric surface temperature: Journal of Applied Meteorology, v. 41, no. 3, p. 319. A riparian corridor along the Rio Grande dominated by the Eurasian Tamarisk is being studied to determine water and energy exchange rates using eddy covariance instrumentation mounted on a twelve foot tower.


Lesica, P., and Miles, S., 2004, Ecological strategies for managing tamarisk on the C.M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA: Biological Conservation, v. 119, no. 4, p. 535Study sampled 12 randomly selected tamarisk-infected inlets on the Fort Peck Resevoir on the CM Russell National Wildlife Refuge stratified by stream basin size.


Lesica, P., and Miles, S., 2002, Establishment patterns of native Populus and Salix in the presence of invasive non-native tamarix: Ecological Applications, v. 12, p. 760–772.


Lesica, P., and Miles, S., 2000, Tamarisk growth at the northern margin of its naturalized range in Montana, USA: Wetlands, v. 21, no. 2, p. 240–246. “We measured the canopy cover, density, height and age of Tamarisk and plains cottonwood in 50 plots at 25 sites along Bighorn, Powder and Yellowstone rivers in southeast Montana near the northern edge of the tamarix range.”


Lewis, P.A., DeLoach, C.J., Herr, J.C., Dudley, T.L., and Carruthers, R.I., 2003, Assessment of risk to native Frankenia shrubs from an asian beetle, Diorhabda elogata deserticola (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), introduced for biological control of saltcedars: Biological Control, v. 27, no. 2, p. 148. Beetles are introduced to saltcedar for control of species. Deserticoa Chen from Central Asia indicate that it is a safe and potentially effective biological control agent.


Malakoff, D., 1999, Plan to import exotic beetle drives some scientists wild: Science, v. 284, no. 5418. Some scientists are worried that the Chinese beetle will do more harm than good. Scientists know nothing of the beetles' habits concerning native species of plants. Even if the saltcedar is wiped off the face of the riverbanks…


Martin, T., 2001, Tamarisk control in southern California.  A success story about reclaiming native habitat in Coachella Valley, California after successfully removing salt cedar. The best time to get rid of salt cedar is when it is dormant from November to April. This website includes other success stories.


Millar, H., 2004, When aliens attack: Sierra, Jul/Aug 2004, v. 89, no. 4. How do you stop a troublesome species from taking root in the remote corners of the Grand Canyon? One plant at a time.


Montana Rangeland Monitoring Program, 1998, Monitoring for success: Helena, MT, Conservation Districts Bureau. 


Muzika, R.M., and Swearingen, J.M., 1999, Saltcedar: Habitats, threats, distribution, and management approaches of saltcedar.


Nagler, P.L., Glenn, E.P., Thompson, L.T., and Huete, A., 2004, Leaf area index and normalized difference vegetation index as predictors of canopy characteristics and light interception by riparian species on the lower Colorado River, Agricultural & Forest Meteorology, v. 125, no. 1, p. 1. “Leaf area index (lai) and normalized vegetation index were compared for riparian species along 350 km stretch of the lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico.” The species included Cottonwood, Willow, saltcedar….


Nagler, P., Edward, G., and Thompson, L.T., 2003, Comparison of transpiration rates among saltcedar, cottonwood and willow trees by sap flow and canopy temperature methods: Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, v. 116, no. 1, p. 73. Technical article. Transpiration measured by stem sap. Flow gauges and canopy and air temperature differential of cottonwood, willow and saltcedar weed compared to determine if remotely sensed canopy temperatures.


Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2004, Noxious weed treatment quick reference: Statewide Noxious Weed Awareness and Education Campaign, MSU LRES-P.O. Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120. This poster contains quick references along with pictures that give treatment options. It lists the categories they belong in and also provides pictures showing the difference between native and invader species.


Norton, G., 2004, Interior Secretary Norton approves healthy forest pilot projects: Ecological Restoration, v. 22, no. 1 p. 3. Reduction of hazardous fuels in western United States forests; compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act; reduction of tamarisk density along the Virgin River in southern Nevada.


Pearce, C.M., and Smith, D.G., 2002, Saltcedar: distribution, abundance, and dispersal mechanisms, northern Montana, USA: Wetlands, v. 23, no. 2, p. 215–228. History of saltcedar in Montana and how it spread to northern Montana. Comprehensive technical report focuses on Musselshell River and Fort Peck Reservoir. Article discusses dispersal mechanisms, distribution, establishment, and management implications.


Phelps, H.W., 2002, Salt-cedar eradication under way. This website contains various articles relating to eradication and management of salt cedar. This particular site focuses on the banks of the Arkansas River:


Petroski, R.J., 2003, Straightforward preparation of (2E-4Z)-2,4-Heptadien-1-ol and (2E-4Z)-2,4-Heptadienal: Synthetic Communications, v. 33, no. 18, p. 3233. The title compounds are male specific, antennally active volatile compounds from the saltcedar leaf beetle, and have potential use in the biological control of the invasive species saltcedar.


Raloff, J., 2000, Living routes to toxic routes: Science News, v. 158, no. 5, p. 75. Describes two processes to remove the pollutant perchlorate from water. Proposition of United States government officials to plant saltcedar or tamarisk trees near polluted waterways.


Rice, P., 2001, Tamarix ramosissima: Invaders Database System: Missoula, MT, University of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences. The INVADERS Database is a comprehensive database of exotic plant names and weed distribution records for five states in the northwestern United States. The spatial and temporal spread of weeds can be displayed using the historic distribution records in INVADERS. 


Roelle, J.E., and Gladwin, D.N., 1999, Establishment of woody, riparian species from natural seedfall at former gravel pit: Restoration Ecology, v. 7, no. 2, p. 183. "Establishment of native riparian communities through natural seedfall may be a viable reclamation alternative at some alluvial sand and gravel mines where water level can be manipulated in the abandoned pit…." "Concurrent establishment of the undesirable exotic Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) was a problem, but we were able to eradicate most saltcedar seedlings by reflooding the lower elevations of the annual drawdown zones each fall."


Rynk, R. 2004, Processing wood residuals in the southwest: Biocycle, v. 45, no. 3, p. 28. “Before the Salt Cedars took hold on the flood plain the Rio Grande river system in the Southwestern US was dominated by cottonwoods and willows and open grasslands. Now salt cedars and other invasive trees are displacing these native species, deteriorating habitats for wildlife, depleting water and increasing the fire risk.”


Sala, A., Murray, K.J., and Sheley, R., 1998, The occurrence and spread of salt-cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) in Montana: Final Report to Montana Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Trust Fund Grant MDA 98-83.


Schaal, B.A., Gaskin, J.F., and Caicedo, A.L., 2003, Phylogeograghy, Haplotype trees, and invasive plant species: Journal of Heredity, v. 94, no. 3, p. 197. Technical article that examines the invasive characteristics of the Tamarix species. Presents a study that examines the relationships between microevolutionary factors and the phylogenic history of haplotype and invasive plants.


Sexton, J.P., 2000, Invasive potential of Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) in continental climates of North America: M.Sc. Thesis: Missoula, MT, University of Montana.


Sheley, R., 2001, Don't gamble with salt cedar. Tamarisk has been assigned a spot on the top ten most noxious weeds list. The amount of water it can consume is incredible.


Sheley, R.L., 1995, Rangeland weed management: Montana State University Extension Service Montguide MT 9504.


Sher, A.A., and Marshall, D.L., 2003, Seedling competition between cative populus deltoids and exotic Tamarix ramosissima across water regimes and substrate types: American Journal of Botany, v. 90, no. 3, p. 413. “Populus deltoids, a cottonwood native to the middle Rio Grande of New Mexico, must potentially compete against toxic Tamarix ramosissima during establishment after flooding.”


Sink, M., 2004, Thirsty shrub is a target as the west fights drought: New York Times, v. 153, no. 52850. Reports on a New Mexico official’s efforts to control the tamarisk.


Smith, S.D., 1995, Mechanisms associated with decline of woody species in riparian ecosystems: Ecological Monographs, v. 65, no. 3. A highly technical research paper studying water flows and the effects on woody plants along the Bill Williams and Colorado Rivers in Nevada and Arizona. 


Sprenger, M.D., Smith, L.M., and Taylor, J.P., 2001, Testing control of saltcedar seedlings using fall flooding: Wetlands, v. 21, p. 437–444.


Stelljes, K.B., and Wood, M., 2000, Foreign agents imported for weed control: Agricultural Research, v. 48, no. 48, p. 4.  Focuses on the research of the United States Agriculture Department’s Agricultural Research Service on the use of beneficial insects for biological control of weeds in the US Quarantine facilities of the ARS.


Stenquist, S.M., 2000, Saltcedar integrated weed management and the Endangered Species Act, in Spencer, N.R. ed., Proceedings X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, 4–14 July 1999, p. 487–504: Bozeman, MT, Montana State University.


Swenson, J.E., Hendricks, P., and Farjon, A., 1982, Arrival and occurrence of Tamarix Chinensis (tamarisk) along the Yellowstone River in Treasure and Rosebud counties, Montana: Proceedings, Montana Academy of Science, v. 41, p. 67–70.


Tickner, D.P., Angold, P.G., Gurnell, A.M., and Mountford, J.O., 2001, Riparian plant invasions: hydrogeomorphological control and ecological impacts: Progress in Physical Geography, v. 25, p. 22–52.


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002,


U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Upper Musselshell Water Users Association, and Deadmans Basin Water Users Association, 1998, Musselshell River Basin Water Management Study: Lewistown, MT, Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. 


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 2002, Fire effects information system: Invasive Plants—Saltcedar.


Whitson, T.D., ed., 2001, Weeds of the west: Western Society of Weed Science with cooperating Western Land Grant University Cooperative Extension Services.


Zavaleta, E., 2000, Valuing ecosystem services lost to Tamarix invasion in the United States, in Mooney, H.A., and Dobbs, R.J., eds., Invasive species in a changing world: Washington, DC, Island Press, p. 261–300. 

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